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37 Fitzroy Street, London, W.1



To modify the data and material taught and demonstrated in the HCA/HPA Theory and Practice course and to bring uniformity of stable data to students and instructors.

There are six basic process types. One or more processes of each type is included in the Theory and Practice course. Listed here are the six basic types, the characteristic, purpose and stable datum of each. These are the general data for each basic type. Specific data are given with the processes themselves.


Characteristic: Two-way communication. Two-way communication is how it is done.

Purpose: To compose preclear into and release him from the auditing session.

Stable Datum: Agreement. Each thing done in starting and ending sessions is the establishment of an agreement.


Characteristic: Control by action. Preclear’s physical actions are controlled in order to do the processes.

Purpose: To place preclear’s body and actions under the auditor’s control to invite control of them by the preclear.

Stable Datum: Never let the preclear get out of doing what he is told.


Characteristic: Mimicry by action. Physical actions are duplicated.

Purpose: To establish communication.

Stable Datum: Each command in its own unit of time separate from every other command.


Characteristic: Thinkingness. The preclear must think something to do the process. Purpose:To recover automaticities of thought and as-is unwanted thinkingness.

Stable Datum: Body control comes before control of thinkingness.


Characteristic: Spotting and finding. Preclear must spot or find something exterior to himself to carry out the auditing command.

Purpose: To orient preclear in present time, drop out past and improve havingness.

Stable Datum: Attention of preclear must be under auditor’s control.


Characteristic: Remembering and forgetting. Preclear must do these things to carry out auditing command or question.

Purpose: To re-control remembering and forgetting and relate past to present.

Stable Datum: Specific things, not generalities.


THETAN: The awareness of awareness unit which has all potentialities but no mass, no wavelength and no location.

MIND: The accumulation of recorded knowns and unknowns and their interaction.

BODY: An identifying form or non-identifiable form to facilitate the control of, the communication of and with and the havingness for the thetan in his existence in the MEST universe.

A thetan himself without the body is capable of performing all the functions he assigns to the body.

* * *

Definition of Tone 40 auditing: Positive, knowing, predictable control toward the preclear’s willingness to be at cause concerning his body and his attention.


NAME: Give me that hand, Tone 40.

COMMANDS: “Give me that hand.” Physical action of taking hand when not given and then replacing it in preclear’s lap. And “Thank you” ending cycle. All Tone 40 with clear intention, one command in one unit of time, no originations of preclear acknowledged in any way verbally or physically. May be run on right hand, left hand, both hands (“Give me those hands”) or “Don’t give me that hand”, each one flattened in turn, never switching to a different hand or command before flattening the one already started.

POSITION: Auditor and preclear seated in chairs without arms, close together. Outside of auditor’s right thigh against outside of preclear’s right thigh. This position reversed for left hand. In both hands preclear’s knees are between auditor’s knees.

PURPOSE: To demonstrate to preclear that control of preclear’s body is possible, despite revolt of circuits, and inviting preclear to directly control it. Absolute control by auditor then passes over toward absolute control of his own body by preclear.

TRAINING STRESS: Never stop process until a flat place is reached. To process with good Tone 40. Auditor taught to pick up preclear’s hand by wrist with auditor’s thumb nearest auditor’s body, to have an exact and invariable place to carry preclear’s hand to before clasping, clasping hand with exactly correct pressure (enough to be real to preclear, not enough to bruise his hand over a long run), replacing hand (with auditor’s left hand still holding preclear’s wrist) in preclear’s lap. Making every command and cycle separate. Maintaining Tone 40. Stress on intention from auditor to preclear with each command. To leave an instant for preclear to do it by his own will before auditor does it. Stress Tone 40 precision — this process puts order into preclear’s case, thus precision must be stressed.

HISTORY: Developed by L. Ron Hubbard in the 17th ACC, Washington, D.C.; 1957.


NAME: Tone 40 8-C.

COMMANDS: “With that body’s eyes look at that wall.” “Thank you.” “Walk that body over to that wall.” “Thank you.” “With that right hand touch that wall.” “Thank you.” “Turn that body around.” “Thank you.” Run without acknowledging in any way any origin by preclear, acknowledging only preclear’s execution of the command. Commands smoothly enforced physically. Tone 40, full intention.

POSITION: Auditor and preclear ambulant, auditor in physical contact with preclear as needed.

PURPOSE: To demonstrate to preclear that his body can be directly controlled and thus inviting him to control it. Finding present time. Havingness. Other effects not fully explained.

TRAINING STRESS: Absolute auditor precision. No drops from Tone 40. No flubs. Total present time auditing. Auditor turns preclear counter-clockwise then steps always on preclear’s right side. Auditor’s body acts as block to forward motion when preclear turns. Auditor gives command, gives preclear a moment to obey, then enforces command with physical contact of exactly correct force to get command executed. Auditor does not check preclear from executing commands.

HISTORY: Developed by L. Ron Hubbard in Washington, D.C., 1957, for the 17th ACC.


NAME: Hand Space Mimicry.

COMMANDS: Auditor raises two hands, palms facing preclear and says, “Put your hands against mine, follow them and contribute to the motion.” He then makes a simple motion with right hand, then left. “Did you contribute to the motion?” “Thank you.” “Put your hands in your lap.” When this is flat the auditor does this same thing with a half inch of space between his and preclear’s palms. “Put your hands facing mine, about a half inch away, follow them and contribute to the motion.” “Did you contribute to the motion?” “Thank you.” “Put your hands in your lap.” When this is flat auditor does it with a wider space and so on until preclear is able to follow motions a yard away.

POSITION: Auditor and preclear seated, close together facing each other, preclear’s knees between auditor’s knees.

PURPOSE: To develop reality on the auditor using the reality scale (solid comm line). To get preclear into communication by control + duplication.

TRAINING STRESS: That auditor be gentle and accurate in his motions, giving preclear Wins. To be free in two-way comm. That the essential part of the auditing command is the motion, not the verbal patter. When it is necessary to physically assist preclear to do commands, use one-hand commands, putting preclear’s hand through the command with auditor’s free hand holding preclear’s hand by the wrist. Accept preclear’s answer to the question, “Did you contribute to the motion?” — his answers are accepted, whatever they may be. Auditor always places his hands up before telling preclear to do so. Auditor tells preclear to put his hands in his lap and keeps his own up until preclear does so, allowing preclear to break the solid comm line.

HISTORY:Developed by L. Ron Hubbard in Washington, 1956, as a therapeutic version of Dummy Hand Mimicry. Something was needed to supplant “Look at me. Who am I?” and “Find the Auditor” part of Rudiments.


NAME: Book Mimicry.

COMMANDS: Auditor makes a simple or complex motion with a book. Hands book to preclear. Preclear makes motion, duplicating auditor’s mirror image- wise. Auditor asks preclear, “Are you satisfied that you duplicated my motion?” If preclear is and auditor is also fairly satisfied, auditor takes book back, acknowledges, “Thank you”, and goes to next command. If preclear says he is and auditor fairly sure he isn’t, auditor takes book back and repeats command and gives book to preclear again for another try. If preclear is not sure he duplicated any command, auditor repeats it for him and gives him back the book. Tone 40 only in motions. Verbal two-way comm quite free.

POSITION: Auditor and preclear seated facing each other a comfortable distance apart.

PURPOSE: To bring up preclear’s communication with control and duplication. (Control + duplication = communication.)

TRAINING STRESS: Stress giving preclear wins. Stress auditor’s necessity to duplicate his own motions. Circular motions are more complex than straight lines.

The basic rule on complexity in duplication processes is: Make the motions as complex as is necessary to get the preclear’s interest and attention and no more.

HISTORY: Developed by L. Ron Hubbard for the 16th ACC in Washington, D.C., 1957. Based on duplication developed by LRH in London, 1952.


CCH 1 is run first and run to a flat spot. Then CCH 2 is run. If CCH 2 produces change, it is flattened and followed by CCH 1. Then CCH 2 and if it again produces change it is followed by CCH 1. This rule is followed throughout — when either CCH 2, CCH 3, CCH 4 produces change the process is flattened and followed by CCH 1. This series of four processes is left when they can be run, one after the other (1, 2, 3, 4) in the same session without producing change.

The four CCH processes are to be run on the following cases:

INSANE: That is, a person who is extremely and obsessively unwilling to control his body, his attention and his thoughts.

UNCONSCIOUS: Any person who is unaware, to a great degree.

HOSTILE: Person who has appeared for processing but who demonstrates a complete unwillingness to accept order and to carry out an auditing command.

CCH 1 “DON’T GIVE ME THAT HAND” version, is a specific process for a case who is dramatizing a heavy compulsive withhold condition.

* * *

COMMANDS: “Recall something that was really real to you.” “Thank you.” “Recall a time when you were in good communication with someone.” “Thank you.” “Recall a time when you really liked someone.” “Thank you.” The three commands are given in that order and repeated in that order consistently.

POSITION: Auditor and preclear seated facing each other at a comfortable distance.

PURPOSE: To give the student reality on the existence of a bank. (When used as a training drill.) This is audited on another and is audited until the preclear is in present time. It will be found that the process discloses the cycling action of the preclear going deeper and deeper into the past and then more and more shallowly into the past until he is recalling something again close to present time. This cyclic action should be studied and understood and the reality on the pictures the preclear gets should be thoroughly understood by the student. The fact that another has pictures should be totally real to the student under training.

NOTE: It should be thoroughly understood that this is a valuable process and an excellent step in preparation for running the heavier recall processes.

HISTORY: Developed by L. Ron Hubbard in 1951 in Wichita, Kansas. This was once a very important process. It has been known to bring people from a neurotic to a sane level after only a short period of application. It has been run on a group basis with success but it should be noted that the thinkingness of the individuals in the group would have to be well under the control of the auditor in order to have this process broadly beneficial. When it was discovered that this process occasionally reduces people’s havingness, the process itself was not generally run thereafter. It is still, however, an excellent process with that proviso, a reduction of havingness in some cases.

If this process is “policed” the auditor asks the preclear “when” before giving the acknowledgement, as often as is necessary to maintain control of the preclear — or as often as is necessary for the auditor to maintain his own confidence that the preclear is under control and doing the process. This process can be run “muzzled” and should be, where muzzling is indicated.

ASSESSMENT DEFINITION: An inventory and evaluation of a preclear, his body and his case to establish processing level and procedure.

1. Determine processing level.

2. Determine process to be used.

3. Always undercut reality level of the case when assessing processing level.

4. Establish reality level of case by two-way communication using understanding and affinity as guides. Understanding: What can the preclear say and talk about that is easily understandable to the auditor? What can the auditor say and talk about that is easily understandable by the preclear? Affinity: What does the preclear like or dislike? What does he detest or ignore? What is he anxious or otherwise mis-emotional about?

5. Never overlook an obvious physical defect or communication difficulty when making an assessment of any kind.

6. Be alert to preclear’s comm lags and what produces them.

7. Observe the preclear’s response to control.

8. Find out what the preclear assigns cause to – what he blames what he feels he can do nothing about.


In the HCA/HPA course this is done by two-way communication. The student should learn it by observance of the instructor. Terminal Assessment is made to locate the terminals in the case which, when run, will produce an increase in the responsibility and reality level of the preclear.


1. Discover the terminals the preclear states to represent each part of the expanded Know to Mystery Scale. Any terminal which is obviously aberrated and won’t clear by two-way comm should be run.

2. Discover what terminals the preclear has identified with the wrong Dynamic. Any terminal wrongly placed that won’t blow by two-way comm should be run.

NOTE: Two-way comm here does not mean invalidative or evaluative questions or comments by auditor.


This is the assessment most used. It is applied to the persons in the preclear’s present life. There are several loaded questions which can be used and there are several observations to be made by the auditor.


“Who is to blame for the condition you are in?”

“Who do you know or have known that you’d really hate to be?”

“Who really had it in for you?”

“Who do you know or have known that you dislike thinking about?”

To be observed by auditor:

Comm lag: Willingness or unwillingness to communicate about a specific person. Physical and emotional effect produced by discussion of specific person: agitation, voice change, blushing, dopiness, etc.

NOTE: Auditor must realize that preclear has no power of choice in the selection of terminals. The terminal is chosen by the auditor.

In a case where the preclear does not answer up to questions or shows no useful (to the assessment) effects from questions, simply select the person who is realest to the preclear and proceed with the process. Continue running the persons in preclear’s present life on basis of who is realest until preclear is able to answer up to assessment questions. Realest person at start may turn out to be the auditor. If so, run it.


COMMANDS: “Think of something you have done to.” “Thank you.”

“Think of something you have withheld from.” “Thank you.” Or “Recall something you have done to.” “Thank you.” “Recall something you have withheld from.” “Thank you.”

The use of the “think of’ command rather than the “recall” allows the preclear to plow through where his track is jammed and incidents are not easily separated, to the point where he can recall. In either case commands are run alternately, one for one.

POSITION: Auditor and preclear seated facing each other at a comfortable distance.

PURPOSE: To put the preclear at knowing cause toward the people in his current life so that those people can no longer restimulate the preclear in livingness.

TRAINING STRESS: Any terminal run with this process is flat when that terminal can no longer restimulate the preclear’s reactive bank. When the preclear can find no new incidents to recall and must repeat old incidents to continue process, a given terminal can be considered flat. Make sure he is repeating incidents and not recalling similar incidents before ending the run on that terminal. Also, the first few repeats may be just the preclear’s way of filling in a comm lag. Student should observe and understand phenomena occurring with this process. Where assessment has been properly made, the preclear will manifest various mis-emotions ranging from below 0.0 on the tone scale up to 2.0 and emotions up to 4.0. The NOT-ISNESS on the case will show up as attempts to not-is the auditor, process or anything preclear’s attention touches. The preclear, at first, will not correctly assign the reasons for his mis-emotions and discomforts and will blame them on the auditor, etc. This is an example of COROLLARY No. 3 of AXIOM 58 in action. This process is run “muzzled” by the student in training. Muzzled auditing is done as follows: At the beginning of session, instructor makes an assessment of the preclear’s case and chooses the terminal to be run. He gets the preclear’s agreement to run the process and does a very brief clearing of the command with the preclear. Then, the student auditor says, “Start of session,” and gives the first command. When preclear has answered the auditor acknowledges and goes on to the next command. If the preclear originates anything, either as a statement, comment or question the auditor nods his head as an acknowledgement. If the preclear asks to have the command repeated, the auditor nods his head and repeats it. This is continued until end of session or until process is flat on that terminal. If student has any question or thinks terminal is flat, he puts his hand behind his chair and wig-wags to get instructor’s attention. He does not leave his chair. Near end of session instructor gives the team notice that the session will end in two minutes. At the end of that time, when preclear has answered the last command and has been acknowledged, the student auditor says, “End of session.” This is all there is to muzzled auditing done by students. The student auditor uses only TR 0, TR2, TR3 (duplicative command) and handles originations with a nod of his head, only. No rudiments or two-way comm beyond “Start of session” and “End of session”. Student should understand that when he runs this process (and some others) on preclears in the field, he should use muzzled auditing whenever he finds himself with any tendency to over-communicate or with any preclear who ARC breaks easily. Student should also understand that Overt-Withhold Selected Persons, Third Rail, ARC Break Straight Wire and Not-is Straight Wire can all restimulate so much automatic NOT-ISNESS that the preclear will at times apparently lose his bank, his memory, and even the auditing command and its meaning. The only action indicated when this occurs is to persist with the process.

HISTORY: Developed by L. Ron Hubbard in the 21st ACC, in Washington, D.C., in 1959, as a means of ensuring wider and more predictable case gains by more auditors, even unskilled ones.


COMMANDS: “Look around here and find something you have.” “Thank you.” “ Look around here and find something you would continue. “ “Thank you.” “Look around here and find something you would permit to vanish.” “Thank you.” Commands are each flattened in turn before going on to next command. Process can be begun on any of the three commands, but the above order should be followed. If process is begun on “vanish” the next command to be run is “have”.

POSITION: Auditor and preclear seated facing each other at a comfortable distance and with preclear facing majority of auditing room.

PURPOSE:To remedy havingness objectively. To bring about the preclear’s ability to have, or not have, his present time environment and to permit him to alter his considerations of what he has, what he would continue and what he would permit to vanish.

TRAINING STRESS: To be run smoothly without invalidative questions. One of the most effective processes known when thinkingness can be controlled somewhat. The student should thoroughly understand that when a preclear is set on wasting, the vanish command will at first occupy the majority of auditing time spent on this process. Student should understand that the three commands can be each flattened in order any number of times and that running one of the commands is quite apt to unflatten the other two. Process should be continued until this no longer occurs.


COMMANDS & POSITION: are the same as in Factual Havingness. However the commands are run in a special ratio of:

  • 8 commands of “vanish”
  • 2 commands of “continue” and
  • 1 command of “have”.
  • PURPOSE: To remedy extreme conditions of NOT-ISNESS. To remedy obsessive waste. To permit use of the process without bogging preclear in any one of the commands.

    TRAINING STRESS: Student should realize that there is very seldom any reason for altering this ratio and should never Q and A with the preclear’s complaints about doing the “continue” or “vanish” commands. Student should understand that Third Rail should be run where auditor is uncertain where to begin with Factual Havingness.

    HISTORY: Developed by L. Ron Hubbard in Washington, D.C., in 1958, as the best form of objective havingness. Originally developed by L. Ron Hubbard in London in 1955 as “Terrible Trio”. Third Rail developed by L. Ron Hubbard in London for the 5th London ACC.


    COMMANDS: None as such. Rudiments is the establishment of the agreements basic to an auditing session, and the termination of them, at end of session. Students must understand what the rudiments are and be able to use them with any preclear who is capable of agreeing to them, by two-way communication. They are:

    1. Auditor

    2. Preclear

    3. Auditing room

    4. Start of session

    5. Preclear’s goal for session.

    Auditor, by two-way comm, gets preclear’s agreement to each of these, allowing preclear to state his own goals. The above order is not necessarily the order in which they are established. There should be enough two-way comm to get the preclear’s agreement and no more. The auditor should determine for himself, but not tell the preclear, what he (the auditor) intends to do with the session. At the end of session auditor makes sure the preclear is released from agreements. Auditor does not argue with the preclear about the preclear’s goals.

    NOTE: If a preclear cannot communicate about the rudiments or be brought to agree with them fairly easily, CCH 1, 2, 3, 4 should be run with only “Start of session” spoken by the auditor as total rudiments. Rudiments are not used otherwise with any preclear who needs to be run on CCH 1, 2, 3, 4. Alternatively, for more accessible cases, do “muzzled” auditing as described above.


    COMMAND: “Mock up a picture for which you can be totally responsible.” “Thank you.”

    POSITION: Auditor and preclear seated facing each other a comfortable distance apart.

    PURPOSE: To put preclear at cause with regard to mental image pictures to the degree that engrams are under his control.

    TRAINING STRESS: That preclear not be run on this process before he is willing to carry out a subjective process command exactly as given. Earlier processes should be well flattened before this is attempted. Otherwise the preclear will be given loses. The command means exactly what it says and the preclear’s thinkingness must be well enough under control for him to view the command that way. This process should not be run for ever without an occasional flattening of NOT-IS Straight Wire.

    HISTORY: Developed by L. Ron Hubbard in Washington, D.C., in 1958.


    COMMANDS: “What part of your life would you be willing to re-experience?” “Thank you.” “What part of the future would you be willing to experience?” “Thank you.” Commands run alternately, one for one.

    POSITION: Auditor and preclear seated facing each other a comfortable distance apart.

    PURPOSE: To bring about the preclear’s ability to re-experience his past without enduring consequence and to confront the future without restimulation.

    TRAINING STRESS: That student understand that the process is run until flat and that student be aware of what “flat” is. When the preclear can easily get out of any incident he gets into and when he can re-experience those things without enduring consequence. Where engrams are encountered with the process the auditor should attempt to find out the year of its occurrence by two-way comm and flash answers and should record the dates found. The auditor must not go into general two-way comm with the preclear about the incidents preclear contacts. Never end the process while preclear is sticking in an incident.

    HISTORY: Developed by L. Ron Hubbard in Washington, D.C., in 1959.


    COMMANDS: Auditor, by two-way comm, discovers the preclear’s present time problem and discusses it with him. If it blows on this basis, fine. If not, we move out of Type 1 Processes. To handle the present time problem other than by two-way comm, discuss it with the preclear and get the names of the terminals involved. Ask the preclear which of these is realest. Run the one he names with Selected Persons Overt-Withhold Straight Wire. Discuss the problem. Find which of the remaining terminals is most real to the preclear. Run it with S.P.O.W.S.W. Discuss the problem and so on until the problem is run out, which is when the preclear does not need to do anything about it.

    POSITION: Auditor and preclear seated facing each other a comfortable distance apart.

    PURPOSE: To remove the surface difficulty that is the present time problem so that the auditing session can progress.

    TRAINING STRESS: Student should know definition of a problem and should know very well what happens to auditing sessions where present time problem is unflat. A problem is “The conflict arising from two opposing intentions”. A present time problem is one that exists in present time, in a real universe. It is any set of circumstances that so engages the attention of the preclear that he feels he should be doing something about it instead of being audited. Auditor uses questions based on definition of present time problem to find present time problems. Never leave a present time problem half run. Preclears with whom the rudiments cannot be readily established should not be run on present time problems but should be run on CCH 1, 2, 3, 4.

    HISTORY: Developed by L. Ron Hubbard in London in 1952.


    COMMAND: “Recall an ARC break.” “When?” “Thank you.”

    POSITION: Auditor and preclear seated facing each other a comfortable distance apart.

    PURPOSE: To as-is ARC breaks. To bring about the preclear’s ability to confront and as-is ARC breaks. To straighten out the preclear’s time track which has become collapsed by ARC breaks in restimulation. To key out and take out of restimulation the “Rock” chain.

    TRAINING STRESS: To not acknowledge the preclear’s execution of the command until the time of the ARC break has been established and to acknowledge with good TR 2 when the time is established. To accept preclear’s reality as to “when”. If he says, “It occurred the year I graduated from high school," accept it and go on to next command. Assist him with two-way comm when he has difficulty locating time. Flash answers may also be used for this. Do not leave process until preclear can easily get out of incidents he gets into on the process. Process is flat when recalling ARC breaks no longer produces undue amounts of mis-emotion. Student should understand that the process has the limitation of being somewhat hard to clear command with person unfamiliar with the term "ARC".

    HISTORY: Developed by L. Ron Hubbard in Washington, D.C., in 1958.

    NOTE: In handling ARC breaks with the auditor, the auditor should use Selected Persons Overt-Withhold with the auditor as the terminal when the break is severe. Otherwise, use TR 5N.


    COMMANDS: "Recall a time you implied something was unimportant." "Thank you." "Recall a time somebody else thought something was important." "Thank you." Commands run alternately, one for one.

    POSITION: Auditor and preclear seated facing each other a comfortable distance apart.

    PURPOSE: To bring NOT-ISNESS (Axiom 11) under preclear’s knowing control and to reduce the NOT-ISNESS in the preclear’s bank. To improve recall and increase reality. To generally increase preclear’s willingness to confront his past. To as-is the times when preclear not-ised others. To bring about the ability to evaluate importances.

    TRAINING STRESS: To be certain preclear can recall overt acts to some fair degree before attempting this process. To make certain the preclear is not running the process on the effect side (i.e. recalling times he thought things were important and times others implied things were unimportant). To persist when preclear’s restimulated NOT-ISNESS threatens to destroy the session. To run the process to a flat spot where the preclear easily gets out of the incidents he gets into and can recall incidents without immediately restimulating NOT-ISNESS, which is manifested by a sudden worsening of his recalls.

    HISTORY: Developed by L. Ron Hubbard in Washington, D.C., in 1959.


    This is a scale of processes as they fit with the CONFRONTINGNESS SCALE, from the bottom up.

    1. CCH 1, 2, 3, 4.

    2. Rudiments.

    3. PT Problems by Overt-Withhold Straight Wire.

    4. ARC Straight Wire.

    5. Selected Persons Overt-Withhold Straight Wire.

    6. Factual Havingness
    7. Third Rail

    8. ARC Break Straight Wire.

    9. Not-Is Straight Wire.

    10. Past and Future Experience.

    11. Mock up a picture for which you can be totally responsible.